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The Many Ways to Use 打 :「打」有很多用法

Finding the hand in the action

The character 打 has the particle in it that is derived from the character 手. Here are their respective pronunciations, along with basic translations:

打 ㄉㄚˇ (dǎ) to beat, to strike, to hit, to break, to type

手 ㄕㄡˇ (shǒu) hand

Perhaps you have already picked up on why a “hand particle” would be part of the character 打? It is because it involves actions that are typically associated with the hand.

Radicals are particles

Radical is another name for particles. Radicals, aka particles, are the simplest characters that are then used to build all other characters. Radicals are one way that is used to organize Chinese words in the dictionary. Exploring the key in the dictionary can help you become familiar with them. Right away what you will see is that when characters are used as particles, their shape frequently changes. How much it changes and in what way depends on what part of the new character it is used. For the “hand particle” in 打, you can see that the original 手 loses one of its horizontal lines, the bottom horizontal line gets slanted, and the whole character gets skinnier.

Do you need to be so violent?

You don’t actually need to be hitting something hard to use the character 打 in a word. It just needs to be an action that uses or infers the hand in some sort of firm way. For instance, dialing a telephone used to mean pushing buttons. Hence the common sentence:

 

你應該打電話給她!

(你)(應該)[(打)(電)(話)(給)](她)

(ㄋㄧˇ)(ㄧㄥ ㄍㄞ)[(ㄉㄚˇ)(ㄉㄧㄢˇ)(ㄏㄨㄚˋ)](ㄍㄟˇ)(ㄊㄚ)

(nǐ)(yīng gāi)[(dǎ)(diǎn)(huà)](gěi)(tā) (you)(should)[(to hit, to strike)(electric)(speech)](to give)(her)

You should give her a call!

 

Another one that has to do with technology:

 

等我一下,我得打完這頁的句子!

(等)(我)(一)(下),(我)(得)[(打)(完)](這)(頁)(的)(句子)

(ㄉㄥˇ)(ㄨㄛˇ)(ㄧˊ)(ㄒㄧㄚˋ), (ㄨㄛˇ)(ㄉㄟˇ)[(ㄉㄚˇ)(ㄨㄢˊ)](ㄓㄜˋ)(ㄧㄝˋ)(ㄉㄜ˙)(ㄐㄩˊ ㄗˋ)

(děng)(wǒ)(yí)(xià), (wǒ)(děi)[(dǎ)(wán)](zhè)(yè)(de.)(jú zì) (to wait)(me)(one, a)(moment), (I)(must)[(to hit = to type)(to finish)](this)(page)(‘s)(sentence)

Wait for me a moment, I must finish typing the sentences on this page.

 

Lets play ball!

 

打 is used to mean “play” for ball games that are predominantly done with hand action.

他們很喜歡打網球。

(他們)(很)(喜歡)(打)(網球)

(ㄊㄚ ㄇㄣ˙)(ㄏㄣˇ)(ㄒㄧˇ ㄏㄨㄢ)(ㄉㄚˇ)(ㄨㄤˇ ㄑㄧㄡˊ)

(tā men.)(hěn)(xǐ huān)(dǎ)(wǎng qiú) (they)(very)(to like)(to play, to hit)(tennis)

They very much like to play tennis.

 

你看了羽毛球的比賽嗎?

(你)(看)(了)(羽毛球)(的)(比賽)(嗎)

(ㄋㄧˇ)(ㄎㄢˋ)(ㄌㄜ˙)(ㄩˇ ㄇㄠˊ ㄑㄧㄡˊ)(ㄉㄜ˙)(ㄅㄧˇ ㄙㄞˋ)(ㄇㄚ˙)

(nǐ)(kàn)(le.)(yǔ máo qiú)(de.)(bǐ sài)(ma.)

(you)(to see)(emphasize completion)(badminton)(adjective marker)(competition, match)

Did you watch the badminton tournament?

 

What other games are you playing?

Some board games are more energetic than others.

 

過農曆新年的時侯在台灣很多人喜歡打麻將。

(過)(農曆新年)❶(的時侯)(在)(台灣)

(ㄍㄨㄛˋ)(ㄋㄨㄥˊ ㄌㄧˋ ㄒㄧㄣ ㄋㄧㄢˊ)(ㄉㄜ˙ ㄕˊ ㄏㄡˋ)(ㄕㄞˋ)(ㄊㄞˊ ㄨㄢ)

(guò)(nóng lì xīn nián)(de. shí hoù)(zài)(tái wān) (to pass)(Chinese New Year)(when)(at)(Taiwan)

(to pass)(Chinese New Year)(when)(at)(Taiwan)

…..(很多)(人)(喜歡)(打)(麻將)

……(ㄏㄣˇ ㄉㄨㄛ)(ㄏㄣˊ)(ㄒㄧˇ ㄏㄨㄢ)(ㄉㄚˇ)(ㄇㄚˊ ㄐㄧㄤˋ)

……(hěn duō)(rén)(xǐ huān)(dǎ)(má jiàng)

……(very many)(people)(to like)(to play, to hit)(mahjong)

Over Chinese New Year, many people in Taiwan like to play Mahjong.

Some people prefer other games.

 

我的孫子們學打電動遊戲很快。

(我的)(孫子們)(學)(打)(電動遊戲)❷(很)(快)

(ㄨㄛˇ ㄉㄜ˙)(ㄙㄨㄣ ㄗ˙ ㄇㄣ˙)(ㄒㄩㄟˊ)(ㄉㄚˇ)(ㄉㄧㄢˋ ㄉㄨㄥˋ ㄧㄡˊ ㄒㄧˋ)(ㄏㄣˇ)(ㄎㄨㄞˋ)

(wǒ de.)(sūn zi. men.)(xué)(dǎ)(diàn dòng yóu xì)(hěn)(kuài)

(my)(grandchildren)(to learn)(to play, to hit)(video game)(very)(fast)

My grandchildren learn to play video games very quickly.

 

Something is hitting the head?

Sneezing and dozing are interesting applications of the use of 打.

 

不好意思!我想我會打噴嚏!

(不好意思)!(我)(想)(我)(會)(打)(噴嚏)

(ㄅㄨˋ ㄏㄠˇ ㄧˋ ㄙㄧ˙)! (ㄨㄛˇ)(ㄒㄧㄤˇ)(ㄨㄛˇ)(ㄏㄨㄟˋ)(ㄉㄚˇ)(ㄆㄣ ㄊㄧˋ)

(bù hǎo yì si.)! (wǒ)(xiǎng)(wǒ)(huì)(dǎ)(pēn tì)

(to be sorry, to be embarrassed)! (I)(to think)(I)(will)(to hit, to)(sneeze)

I’m sorry! I think I’m going to sneeze!

 

今天我的老公看電影時打瞌睡,

(今天)(我的)(老公)(看)(電影)(時)(打)(瞌睡),

(ㄐㄧㄣ ㄊㄧㄢ)(ㄨㄛˇ ㄉㄜ˙)(ㄌㄠˇ ㄍㄨㄥ)(ㄎㄢˋ)(ㄉㄧㄢˋ ㄧㄥˇ)(ㄕˊ)(ㄉㄚˇ)(ㄎㄜ ㄕㄨㄟˋ),

(jīn tiān)(wǒ de.)(lǎo gōng)(kàn)(diàn yǐng)(shí)(dǎ)(kē shuì),

(today)(my)(husband)(to watch)(movie)(when, time)(to hit, to)(doze, to nap)

…..因為他感冒了。

…..(因為)(他)(感冒)(了)

……(ㄧㄣ ㄨㄟˋ)(ㄊㄚ)(ㄍㄢˇ ㄇㄠˋ)(ㄌㄜ˙)

……(yīn wèi)(tā)(gǎn mào)(le.)

……(because)(he)(caught a cold)(emphasize)

Today my husband dozed off while watching a move, because he has a cold.

 

Then there are leftovers –

 

我在餐廳吃飯時,總是會打包剩菜回家。

(我)(在)(餐廳)(吃飯)(時),

(ㄨㄛˇ)(ㄗㄞˋ)(ㄘㄢ ㄊㄧㄥ)(ㄔ ㄈㄢˋ)(ㄕˊ),

(wǒ)(zài)(cān tīng)(chī fàn)(shí),

(I)(at)(restaurant)(eat a meal)(time, when),

…..(總是)(會)(打包)(剩菜)(回)(家)

……(ㄗㄨㄥˇ ㄕˋ)(ㄏㄨㄟˋ)(ㄉㄚˇ ㄅㄠ)(ㄕㄥˋ ㄘㄞˋ)(ㄏㄨㄟˊ)(ㄐㄧㄚ)

……(zǒng shì)(huì)(dǎ bāo)(shèng cài)(huí)(jiā)

……(always)(will)(to wrap, to ask for doggy bag)(leftovers)(to return)(home)

When I eat at a restaurant, I always take leftovers home.

 

And manual labor…

 

我們的小狗會咬啃東西, 我得打掃整理房子。

(我們的)(小狗)(會)(咬啃)(東西),

(ㄨㄛˇ ㄇㄣ˙ ㄉㄜ˙)(ㄒㄧㄠˇ ㄍㄡˇ)(ㄏㄨㄟˋ)(ㄧㄠˇ ㄎㄣˇ)(ㄉㄨㄥ ㄒㄧ),

(wǒ men. de.)(xiǎo gǒu)(huì)(yǎo kěn)(dōng xī),

…..(我)(得)(打掃)(整理)(房子)

……(ㄨㄛˇ)(ㄉㄟˇ)(ㄉㄚˇ ㄙㄠˇ)(ㄓㄥˇ ㄌㄧˊ)(ㄈㄤˊ ㄗ˙)

……(wǒ)(děi)(dǎ sǎo)(zhěng lí)(fáng zi.)

Our dog chews things, so I must clean and organize the house.

 

給腳踏車的輪胎打氣,把我累死了!

(給)(腳踏車)(的)(輪胎)(打氣),

(ㄍㄟˇ)(ㄐㄧㄠˇ ㄊㄚˋ ㄔㄜ)(ㄉㄜ˙)(ㄌㄨㄣˊ ㄊㄞ)(ㄉㄚˇ ㄑㄧˋ),

(to give)(bicycle)(adjective marker/possessive)(tire)(to pump up, to inflate)

…..(把)(我)(累)(死了)

……(ㄅㄚˇ)(ㄨㄛˇ)(ㄌㄟˋ)(ㄙˇ ㄌㄜ˙)

…..(indicates passive voice)(me)(tired)(to death)

Pumping up my bicycle tire makes me extremely tired!

 

Don’t forget the encouragement -

他要參加這次的馬拉松賽跑,我們替他打氣加油!

(他)(要)(參加)(這)(次)(的)(馬拉松)(賽跑),

(ㄊㄚ)(ㄧㄠˋ)(ㄘㄢ ㄐㄧㄚ)(ㄓㄜˋ )(ㄘˋ)(ㄉㄜ˙)(ㄇㄚˇ ㄌㄚ ㄙㄨㄥ)(ㄙㄞˋ ㄆㄠˇ),

(tā)(yào)(cān jiā)(zhè)(cì)(de.)(mǎ lā sōng)(sài pǎo),

(he)(to want)(to participate, to join)(this)(next)(adjective marker)(marathon)(race)

…..(我們)(替)(他)(打氣)(加油)

……(ㄨㄛˇ ㄇㄣ˙)(ㄊㄧˋ)(ㄊㄚ)(ㄉㄚˇ ㄑㄧˋ)(ㄐㄧㄚ ㄧㄡˊ)

……(wǒ men.)(tì)(tā)(dǎ qì)(jiā yóu)

……(we)(for, on)(him)(pump up)(add oil)

(If) he wants to run this next marathon, we will encourage him!

希望你們樂習中文,我為你們打氣加油!

(希望)(你們)(樂)(習)(中文),

(ㄒㄧ ㄨㄤˋ)(ㄋㄧˇ ㄇㄣ˙)(ㄌㄜˋ)(ㄒㄧˊ)(ㄓㄨㄥ ㄨㄣˊ),

(xī wàng)(nǐ men.)(lè)(xí)(zhōng wén),

(to hope)(plural ‘you’)(happy, cheerful, fun)(to practice, to study)(Chinese language),

…..(我)(為)(你們)(打氣)(加油)

……(ㄨㄛˇ)(ㄨㄟˋ)(ㄋㄧˇ ㄇㄣ˙)(ㄉㄚˇ ㄑㄧˋ)(ㄐㄧㄚ ㄧㄡˊ)

……(wǒ)(wèi)(nǐ men.)(dǎ qì)(jiā yóu)

……(I)(for, to)(you)(to pump up)(to add oil)

I encourage you to have fun learning Chinese!

 

Can you make up some sentences to use 打?

 


Notes:

 

❶ The literal meaning of 農曆 is lunar from the combination of

農 ㄋㄨㄥˊ  (nóng) agriculture, farming

曆 ㄌㄧˋ      (lì) calendar, era

 

❷ The 4 characters used to mean video game are literally

電  ㄉㄧㄢˋ  (diàn) electric

動  ㄉㄨㄥˋ  (dòng) to move, action

遊  ㄧㄡˊ     (yóu) to wander, to travel

戲  ㄒㄧˋ     (xì) theatrical play, show